American Society of Anaesthetists
No organic, physiologic, biochemical or psychiatric disturbance
Localised pathology, no systemic disturbance
Eg: fit pt for inguinal hernia, fibroid uterus in a healthy woman.
Mild-mod systemic disturbance without functional limitations
- may be the condition to be treated
- or background, eg mild diabetes, htn, mildly limiting heart disease,
anaemia, extremes of age, morbid obesity.
Severe systemic disturbance from whatever cause, with functional
Eg severely limiting organic heart disease
- severe DM with vascular complications
- moderate-severe pulmonary disease that limits activity
- angina, healed MI.
- uncrontrolled hypertension.
Severe disorders of life-threatening nature (with or without the
Eg organic heart disease and insufficiency
- persistent angina / active myocarditis
- advanced pulmonary, hepatic, renal, endocrine insufficiency
Moribund, operation in desperation.
- not expected to survive with or without the procedure.
Eg AAA burst, massive PE, massive cerebral trauma and raised ICP for
- mose require resuscitation with little, if any, anaesthesia.
Indicates an emergency.
Hill, J. Surgical Emergencies.
Barie et al. Surg Clin N Am, 85(2005):1115-35.